Home History World War II (1939-1945) 01.08.1944 Warsaw Uprising

01.08.1944 Warsaw Uprising PDF Print E-mail
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Monday, 01 August 2011 22:36

Tpowstanie, warszawskie, world war, second, warsaw uprising,he Warsaw Uprising (Polish: powstanie warszawskie) was a major World War II operation by the Polish resistance Home Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from Nazi Germany, ahead of the Red Army's advance. The rebellion coincided with the retreat of German forces and the Red Army's approaching the eastern suburbs of the city Controversially, the Soviet advance stopped short, while Polish resistance against the German forces continued for 63 days with little outside support.

The uprising began on 1 August 1944, as part of a nationwide rebellion, Operation Tempest, when the Soviet Army approached Warsaw. The main Polish objectives were to drive the German occupiers from the city and help with the larger fight against Germany and the Axis powers. Secondary political objectives were to liberate Warsaw before the Soviets, so as to underscore Polish sovereignty by empowering the Polish Underground State before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control. Also, short-term causes included the threat of a German round-up of able-bodied Poles, and Moscow radio calling for the Uprising to begin.

Initially, the Poles seized substantial areas of the city, but the Soviets did not advance beyond the city's borders until mid-September. Inside the city, bitter fighting between the Germans and Poles continued. By 16 September, Polish forces under Soviet high command reached a point a few hundred meters from the Polish positions, across the Vistula River, but they made no further headway during the Uprising, leading to allegations that the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin could not advance because the Red Army had been exhausted from the previous campaign.

Winston Churchill pleaded with Stalin and Franklin D. Roosevelt to help Britain's Polish allies, to no avail. Then, without Soviet air clearance, Churchill sent over 200 low-level supply drops by the Royal Air Force, the South African Air Force and the Polish Air Force under British High Command. Later, after gaining Soviet air clearance, the USAAF sent one high-level mass airdrop as part of Operation Frantic.

Although the exact number of casualties remains unknown, it is estimated that about 16,000 members of the Polish resistance were killed and about 6,000 badly wounded. In addition, between 150,000 and 200,000 civilians died, mostly from mass murders conducted by troops fighting on the German side. German casualties totaled over 8,000 soldiers killed and missing, and 9,000 wounded. During the urban combat approximately 25% of Warsaw's buildings were destroyed. Following the surrender of Polish forces, German troops systematically leveled 35% of the city block by block. Together with earlier damage suffered in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943), over 85% of the city was destroyed by January 1945, when the Soviets entered the city.

Photo: Flag with logo of Polish Army, PW - Polska Walcząca (Fighting Poland).

Movie shows war scenes and moments from life of citizens of Warsaw during this hard period.

Source: Wikipedia
Text available under Creative Commons Licence
Photo: Flaga Armi Krajowej Author: Bastianow, User: XdaniX (The color correction. In 1921-1980 the color is Vermilion.)

Last Updated on Monday, 01 August 2011 23:07
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